In Spain, New Year is observed on the first date of the Georgian calendar. New Year’s Eve, ithe major day of celebrations, is also referred as ‘Nochevieja’.

New Year’s Eve in Spain is more of a family affair. No one prefers to go out before midnight, till the time all traditions and traditional celebrations are concluded appropriately. Once, they are over, one can see the emerging crowd over the streets, and in the community parties organized in clubs and bars.

Madrid, the capital and the largest city of Spain, is also credited as the best host of the New Year’s Eve celebrations for the evening. Thousands of people gather in the main square of Puerta del Sol in Madrid, to witness the best of the community celebrations of Spain. At the stroke of midnight, the sight of thousands of people eating grapes in concord with the ring of each bell does make one feel a part of a magical time. The further magical and spectacular show of fireworks filling the skies seemed to be put to action directly from heavens.

New Year’s Eve is also a time to abide by the traditions and customs associated with the occasion. As far as that goes, people can remain pleasantly engaged in fulfilling traditions only, all through the New Year’s Eve as they are plenty in numbers.

People usually stay back to their homes, along with their family members till the moment of the arrival of New Year occurs. At the stroke of twelve, there is a tradition of eating twelve grapes. It is a prominent and highly popular tradition, which is followed in many other countries, though with different beliefs and in different ways. In Spain, one has to eat one grape with each ring of the bell, and thus, has to complete one’s share of twelve grapes by the time the clock rings the last bell. Usually, people in Spain listen to the rings of the bell from the live telecast of the clock of Puerta del Sol in Madrid. There is another tradition of wearing red underwear on New Year’s Eve, and that too must not be bought by you, but should be gifted or given by someone else. Wearing red colored underwear is believed to confer one with good luck in the coming year.


2016 was amazing.
2017 is going to be even better!

New Year’s Eve in London is all about fun and celebration and we all want to have a great time.


A traditional feature of Christmas afternoom is the Queen's Christmas Message. At three o'clock in the afternoon the Queen's gives her Christmas Message to the nation which is broadcast on radio and television. In 2007, the Queen launched her own channel on video-sharing website YouTube, which feature the message.

In this year's Christmas Broadcast, commonly known as 'The Queen's Speech', Her Majesty to refer to 'moments of darkness' in Christmas speech


Jingle bells, jingle bells... Have you done your Christmas shopping yet? Watch this video to see how a shop is getting ready for Christmas. 


International Children’s day

November 20th : Children’s rights Day

The Children’s day (or Children’s rights day) is celebrated every 20th of November ; This day marks the anniversary of the International convention for Children’s rights of November 20th 1989.

History of Children’s Day

In 1954, the UN recommended that « every country should introduce a Children’s Day which will be devoted to fraternity and to comprehension among children of the world, and which will stand out by activities encouraging Children’s well-being throughout the world. » (1)
If the UN « suggests to governments of each states to observe children’s Day on the day and in the way that best suit them », events of 1959 and 1989 designate inevitably the 20th November.
In fact, on November 20th 1959, the UN adopted the Children’s rights declaration, and on November 20th 1989, almost all of the states taking part in the UN ratified the International Convention for Children’s rights.To this day, only the United-States and Somalia have not ratified this convention.

2º ESO - UNIT 1


We use the present simple to talk about repeated actions or events, permanent states or things which are always true.

Simple Present (Aff., Neg., Interr.):
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 , 9 , 10

Simple Present Negative: 1, 2
Interrogative: 1, 2, 3
Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative: 1, 2, 3 , 4, 5
Put in the correct order: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Simple Present Tense:
Forming the 3rd person Singular:  2,
Affirmative Form:1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6,
Frequency Adverbs: 1, 2



On 13 October 1884 Greenwich, in London was established as the Universal Time meridian of longitude - from which all World time zones are based. The Royal Observatory Greenwich is where East meets West at the Greenwich Meridian Line (0° longitude).

What is longitude?
Longitude is the location of a place east or west of a north-south line called the prime meridian.
The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into the eastern and western hemisphere.

Why was Greenwich chosen?
There are an infinite number of possible meridians, each stretching from the North to the South Pole, and any one of these could have been chosen. However, the Greenwich Meridian was pre-eminent because it had already been adopted by both the UK and USA and was therefore being used by 72% of the world's shipping.



Hispanic Day (Día de la Hispanidad) or National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is an annual national public holiday in Spain on October 12. It marks the anniversary of when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the Americas in 1492.
The king of Spain supervises the raising of the Spanish national flag in the center of Madrid on Hispanic Day. He and the prime minister lead a military parade after that. The parade includes representatives from most of Spain's military units and various military vehicles. Armed forces' planes perform aerobatics above the parade route and display yellow and red smoke to represent the Spanish flag. Radio, television and Internet news services broadcast live on these events.

Hispanic Day is a day off work and an opportunity to spend time quietly at home or in the company of family members and close friends. People in the Aragon region in the north-east of Spain also commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar, their patron saint, on October 12.


Columbus Day 2016 falls on the second Monday in October, this year 10th October — as it does each year. This day is remembered in the U.S.A to pay tribute to the 1st journey to America in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.

In the past schools have taught that Christopher Columbus found America. Looking at this from better hindsight we see that all of the areas he found had people living in them already, meaning he didn't discover it for the first time. It can still be claimed as a discovery but solely from a Europe standpoint — not a native one.
Columbus Day 2011 can find its origin from the initial 'celebration' in 1792. At the very least this is the earliest recorded remembrance of Christopher Columbus's grand unveiling of America. It was 300 years after the 'New World' was found that the Colombian Order prepared a service in New York City to pay credit to Christopher Columbus marking his 'first landing'. In New York 1866 on October 12th the Italian residents planned the initial observance of the finding of 'America' as a whole. Then, in San Francisco 1869 Italian residents also honored October twelfth. In 1892 President Benjamin Harrison, 400 years after Columbus' first journey, gave a public statement in memory of the 'New World' being discovered. It was 1905 when the initial State Colorado respected an official 'Columbus Day'. From 1920 Columbus Day was observed each year. President Franklin Roosevelt in 1937 declared all October twelfths as 'Columbus Day' but it was proclaimed by Congress as a national holiday on each 2nd Monday in 1971. That's why we have Columbus Day 2015!


 Each year, one of the nost moving commemorations of September 11 is the Tribute in Light. 88 searchlights tha stretch four miles into the sky to create a ghostly monment to the Twin Towers

In honor of the 14th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, numerous exhibits, concerts, films, readings, talks, performances, and memorial servics will reflect on the desvatation of that day and its aftermath, each on a poignant reminder of why those towers of light (which return once again at dusk on September 11) still have the power to choke us up. 



Our Lady’s birthday is generally celebrated by the Catholic church on the 8th September and so this date has been adopted as an opportunity to honour the different images of Mary. In Malaga, people celebrate the feast day of the patron of the city, ‘Our Lady of Victory’.
As her name would suggest, the ‘Virgen de la Victoria’ is venerated due the the role she is believed to have played in various military victories.
The first was in 1571 at the battle of Lepanto, near Greece, when the Holy League (made up of Spain and the Papacy among others) fought the Ottoman Empire. Christians prayed the Rosary in St. Peter’s Square in Rome in the hope that Mary would intercede for them, winning them God’s help in keeping the Muslim Empire out of Western Europe. A miraculous victory was won.
In Malaga itself, a statue of Our Lady of Victory is thought to have been kept in Ferdinand’s chapel in the military encampment during the siege when Malaga was re-conquered by the Catholic King and Queen. In 1867, Pope Pius IX appointed this image of Mary as patron of the city.
Thus the 8th September is a local holiday. On the last Sunday in August, in preparation for the feast day, the image of the ‘Virgen de la Victoria’ is taken to Malaga cathedral where a novena (a particularly powerful way of praying the Rosary) is said in devotion to Our Lady. On Sunday there will be a procession much like those one sees during Semana Santa, during which the image is carried to the Santuario de la Victoria in the Plaza Santuario, near the Plaza de la Merced.



On 21 July 1969, American Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Eagle landing craft. As he put his left foot down first Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal and the landing craft left a crater about a foot deep.

Take off
On 16 July 1969, the Saturn V rocket launched Apollo 11 into the sky from the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida.

The Crew
Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Michael Collins
The Lunar Module
To land on the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin used a lunar module nicknamed Eagle. When they landed Neil sent the following message back to Earth

"Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed."


The Virgin of Carmen is the patron saint and protector of fishermen and sailors. Religious Virgins are hugely popular in Andalucia (Spain); they are normally handcrafted from wood and porcelain and spend 99.9 per cent of the year at the local church. Most are dusted down and placed on flower-decked thrones at Easter-time when they are lovingly and solemnly borne through the streets. The Virgen del Carmen, however, has her own special day.

On the evening of July 16, in the fishing villages and towns up and down the Coast, her much-loved effigy is not only paraded through the streets but also taken for a spin round the bay on a flower-adorned boat, accompanied by a flotilla of "jábegas" (fishing boats). Brass bands play, crowds cheer, rockets shoot off and fireworks fill the late dusk sky.

Celebrations vary slightly from town to town. In Málaga, for example, the procession takes place not only on July 16, but on the following Sunday. A recent Malagueñan tradition, started in 1981, shows the Virgen del Carmen embracing all lovers of the sea - including scuba divers. That year, the City scuba diving club placed an image of their patron at the bottom of the sea and since then divers have paid their underwater homage annually.

The festival is especially important in the fishing villages of neighbouring Rincon de la Victoria and La Cala, both of which have the Virgen del Carmen as their town patron.

To understand why the Virgen del Carmen should be held so dear to the inhabitants of towns such as Estepona, Velez Malaga, Torremolinos and Rincon de la Victoria, we need to go back to the Old Testament. Downshifting in his old age, the prophet Elias retreated to a cave in Mount Carmelo near Haife (Israel). Many centuries later, hermits following in Elijah's footsteps asked for the protection of the Virgin Mary of Mount Carmelo - the Virgin of Carmen. Stella Maris, as she was also known, was soon adopted by mariners and fishermen everywhere as their patron.

Although long overtaken by tourism, many Costa towns still retain fishing communities and a strong attachment to "la Reina de los Mares" (the Queen of the Seas). It was once believed - perhaps in the days before water-purifying plants! - that the Virgin cleared up the waters with her presence and that only after July 16 would the sea be fit for swimming in.




At midnight on the 14 th July the fiesta formally closes with the ceremony called the "Pobre de Mí."
This takes place in front of the Town Hall, where the fiesta was opened 8½ days earlier. There are other events also taking place in the city, (such as the Peñas gathering in the main square - the Plaza del Castillo, for their own celebration).
However, in front of the Town Hall a large crowd gathers to sing "Pobre de Mí, Pobre de Mí, que se han acabado las fiestas, de San Fermín." (Poor me, poor me, for the fiesta of San Fermín has come to a close).

This is a very sad occasion because it is the end of the fiesta, (though many are relieved because they cannot take any more), but they still look forward to next year and even sing "Ya falta menos" (there is not long to go).
In fact, the Pobre de mí is the end of a long day of farewells; the farewell of the Giants takes place in the morning. There is also the farewell of the Peñas in the Plaza de Toros in the evening.



What is Bastille Day?

Bastille Day is the French national holiday which is celebrated on 14 July each year. It commemorates the storming of the Bastille, which took place on 14 July 1789 and marked the beginning of the French Revolution.
At one time in France, kings and queens ruled. Many people were very angry with the decisions made by the kings and queens.

What was Bastille?

The Bastille was a prison in France that the kings and queens often used to lock up the people that did not agree with their decisions.

Why was the Bastille prison attacked by the French people?

To many people, the prison was a symbol of all the bad things done by the kings and queens, so the storming of the prison was a symbol of liberty (freedom) and the fight against oppression for all French citizens
The French Revolution and the End of the Monarchy

The storming of the Bastille was the beginning of the French Revolution. Like the American Revolution, the French Revolution brought great changes. Kings and queens no longer rule France. The people rule themselves and make their own decisions.
On 21 September 1792 France became a republic.



Buckingham Palace is the Queen's official and main royal London home. It has been the official London residence of Britain's monarchy since 1837. Queen Victoria was the first sovereign to take up residence in Buckingham Palace. She moved in on 13 July 1837, just three weeks after her accession.



On 9 July 1900 Queen Victoria gave Royal Assent to the Act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The Act proclaimed that the Australian colonies would be united (as of January 1, 1901) as the Commonwealth of Australia, under a single constitution.

Quick Facts about Australia
Official Name: Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Population: 18,783,551 (July 1999 estimate)
Area: 2,967,710 square miles
Australia is the only country that is also a continent.
Australia is the smallest continent in the world and the sixth-largest country in land area
Australia is home to such unique animals as the kangaroo, the koala, and the dingo, a kind of dog



4th of July Pictures, Graphics, Images, CommentsIndependence Day in the United States is also known as the Fourth of July. It is a national holiday that commemorates the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. This was the day the USA was born and became independent from Great Britain. The terms “Independence Day” and the “Fourth of July” are a well-known part of the USA’s cultural language. People celebrate with national pride. There are fireworks, parades, sporting events and lots more. It is one of the biggest days on America’s holiday calendar. Politicians make speeches celebrating America’s history and traditions. In particular, attention turns to Thomas Jefferson’s speech that declared the United States of America as an independent nation.
Independence Day is a red, white and blue affair. The whole of the country displays American flags and banners. There are many festivals that enact famous events from America’s history. It is also a day when the nation gets outdoors. Picnics and barbecues with family and friends are the most popular ways to celebrate. In the evening, there are thousands of fireworks displays across the country. One of the most popular is the Macy’s department store show on New York’s East River. This is televised nationwide by the NBC TV channel. Also in New York, you can witness the Hot Dog Eating Contest on Coney Island. Indeed, American food is of course a big part of the day and millions of hot dogs, burgers and pizzas are eaten.






Canada Day (formerly known as Dominion Day) is a national holiday in Canada. It is always observed on 1 July, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case it is observed the following day

Why is this day formerly known Dominion Day?

On 1 July 1867, the British government (under Queen Victoria) approved a plan which allowed Canada to become an independent country with its own government. Four provinces (Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) joined to form the Dominion of Canada.
Dominion Day was officially renamed "Canada Day" by an Act of Parliament on 27 October 1982.
Canada was once a British Colony, but it is now an independent country with its own legal system and constitution.

Facts about Canada

Canada is ......
•a country occupying most of northern North America,
•one of the largest countries in the world
•the second largest country in the world.
Only 27 million people live in Canada, making it the 28th largest in population.

Canada has the largest source of fresh water in the world. A large portion of Canada is covered with lakes and streams.
In Canada, 100 different languages are spoken.
The Canadian $1 coin is called the Loonie, named after a bird, pictured on the coin, native to Canada.


"The Day of the African Child is celebrated on 16 June in recognition of the day when, in 1976, thousands of black school children in Soweto, South Africa, took to the streets to protest the inferior quality of their education and to demand their right to be taught in their own language. Hundreds of young boys and girls were shot; and in the two weeks of protest that followed, more than 100 people were killed and more than 1,000 were injured."

The Day of the African Child is a day to fight for the cause of children in trouble: the AIDS orphans, child soldiers and impoverished youth who will inherit the continent.
As many as 50,000 African children under the age of five will lose their lives as the result of preventable or curable diseases. And as many as 38 million children of primary school age in Africa still remain out of school.