On 21 July 1969, American Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Eagle landing craft. As he put his left foot down first Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal and the landing craft left a crater about a foot deep.

Take off
On 16 July 1969, the Saturn V rocket launched Apollo 11 into the sky from the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida.

The Crew
Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Michael Collins
The Lunar Module
To land on the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin used a lunar module nicknamed Eagle. When they landed Neil sent the following message back to Earth

"Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed."


The Virgin of Carmen is the patron saint and protector of fishermen and sailors. Religious Virgins are hugely popular in Andalucia (Spain); they are normally handcrafted from wood and porcelain and spend 99.9 per cent of the year at the local church. Most are dusted down and placed on flower-decked thrones at Easter-time when they are lovingly and solemnly borne through the streets. The Virgen del Carmen, however, has her own special day.

On the evening of July 16, in the fishing villages and towns up and down the Coast, her much-loved effigy is not only paraded through the streets but also taken for a spin round the bay on a flower-adorned boat, accompanied by a flotilla of "jábegas" (fishing boats). Brass bands play, crowds cheer, rockets shoot off and fireworks fill the late dusk sky.

Celebrations vary slightly from town to town. In Málaga, for example, the procession takes place not only on July 16, but on the following Sunday. A recent Malagueñan tradition, started in 1981, shows the Virgen del Carmen embracing all lovers of the sea - including scuba divers. That year, the City scuba diving club placed an image of their patron at the bottom of the sea and since then divers have paid their underwater homage annually.

The festival is especially important in the fishing villages of neighbouring Rincon de la Victoria and La Cala, both of which have the Virgen del Carmen as their town patron.

To understand why the Virgen del Carmen should be held so dear to the inhabitants of towns such as Estepona, Velez Malaga, Torremolinos and Rincon de la Victoria, we need to go back to the Old Testament. Downshifting in his old age, the prophet Elias retreated to a cave in Mount Carmelo near Haife (Israel). Many centuries later, hermits following in Elijah's footsteps asked for the protection of the Virgin Mary of Mount Carmelo - the Virgin of Carmen. Stella Maris, as she was also known, was soon adopted by mariners and fishermen everywhere as their patron.

Although long overtaken by tourism, many Costa towns still retain fishing communities and a strong attachment to "la Reina de los Mares" (the Queen of the Seas). It was once believed - perhaps in the days before water-purifying plants! - that the Virgin cleared up the waters with her presence and that only after July 16 would the sea be fit for swimming in.




At midnight on the 14 th July the fiesta formally closes with the ceremony called the "Pobre de Mí."
This takes place in front of the Town Hall, where the fiesta was opened 8½ days earlier. There are other events also taking place in the city, (such as the Peñas gathering in the main square - the Plaza del Castillo, for their own celebration).
However, in front of the Town Hall a large crowd gathers to sing "Pobre de Mí, Pobre de Mí, que se han acabado las fiestas, de San Fermín." (Poor me, poor me, for the fiesta of San Fermín has come to a close).

This is a very sad occasion because it is the end of the fiesta, (though many are relieved because they cannot take any more), but they still look forward to next year and even sing "Ya falta menos" (there is not long to go).
In fact, the Pobre de mí is the end of a long day of farewells; the farewell of the Giants takes place in the morning. There is also the farewell of the Peñas in the Plaza de Toros in the evening.



What is Bastille Day?

Bastille Day is the French national holiday which is celebrated on 14 July each year. It commemorates the storming of the Bastille, which took place on 14 July 1789 and marked the beginning of the French Revolution.
At one time in France, kings and queens ruled. Many people were very angry with the decisions made by the kings and queens.

What was Bastille?

The Bastille was a prison in France that the kings and queens often used to lock up the people that did not agree with their decisions.

Why was the Bastille prison attacked by the French people?

To many people, the prison was a symbol of all the bad things done by the kings and queens, so the storming of the prison was a symbol of liberty (freedom) and the fight against oppression for all French citizens
The French Revolution and the End of the Monarchy

The storming of the Bastille was the beginning of the French Revolution. Like the American Revolution, the French Revolution brought great changes. Kings and queens no longer rule France. The people rule themselves and make their own decisions.
On 21 September 1792 France became a republic.



Buckingham Palace is the Queen's official and main royal London home. It has been the official London residence of Britain's monarchy since 1837. Queen Victoria was the first sovereign to take up residence in Buckingham Palace. She moved in on 13 July 1837, just three weeks after her accession.



On 9 July 1900 Queen Victoria gave Royal Assent to the Act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The Act proclaimed that the Australian colonies would be united (as of January 1, 1901) as the Commonwealth of Australia, under a single constitution.

Quick Facts about Australia
Official Name: Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Population: 18,783,551 (July 1999 estimate)
Area: 2,967,710 square miles
Australia is the only country that is also a continent.
Australia is the smallest continent in the world and the sixth-largest country in land area
Australia is home to such unique animals as the kangaroo, the koala, and the dingo, a kind of dog



4th of July Pictures, Graphics, Images, CommentsIndependence Day in the United States is also known as the Fourth of July. It is a national holiday that commemorates the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. This was the day the USA was born and became independent from Great Britain. The terms “Independence Day” and the “Fourth of July” are a well-known part of the USA’s cultural language. People celebrate with national pride. There are fireworks, parades, sporting events and lots more. It is one of the biggest days on America’s holiday calendar. Politicians make speeches celebrating America’s history and traditions. In particular, attention turns to Thomas Jefferson’s speech that declared the United States of America as an independent nation.
Independence Day is a red, white and blue affair. The whole of the country displays American flags and banners. There are many festivals that enact famous events from America’s history. It is also a day when the nation gets outdoors. Picnics and barbecues with family and friends are the most popular ways to celebrate. In the evening, there are thousands of fireworks displays across the country. One of the most popular is the Macy’s department store show on New York’s East River. This is televised nationwide by the NBC TV channel. Also in New York, you can witness the Hot Dog Eating Contest on Coney Island. Indeed, American food is of course a big part of the day and millions of hot dogs, burgers and pizzas are eaten.






Canada Day (formerly known as Dominion Day) is a national holiday in Canada. It is always observed on 1 July, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case it is observed the following day

Why is this day formerly known Dominion Day?

On 1 July 1867, the British government (under Queen Victoria) approved a plan which allowed Canada to become an independent country with its own government. Four provinces (Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) joined to form the Dominion of Canada.
Dominion Day was officially renamed "Canada Day" by an Act of Parliament on 27 October 1982.
Canada was once a British Colony, but it is now an independent country with its own legal system and constitution.

Facts about Canada

Canada is ......
•a country occupying most of northern North America,
•one of the largest countries in the world
•the second largest country in the world.
Only 27 million people live in Canada, making it the 28th largest in population.

Canada has the largest source of fresh water in the world. A large portion of Canada is covered with lakes and streams.
In Canada, 100 different languages are spoken.
The Canadian $1 coin is called the Loonie, named after a bird, pictured on the coin, native to Canada.