On 13 October 1884 Greenwich, in London was established as the Universal Time meridian of longitude - from which all World time zones are based. The Royal Observatory Greenwich is where East meets West at the Greenwich Meridian Line (0° longitude).

What is longitude?
Longitude is the location of a place east or west of a north-south line called the prime meridian.
The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into the eastern and western hemisphere.

Why was Greenwich chosen?
There are an infinite number of possible meridians, each stretching from the North to the South Pole, and any one of these could have been chosen. However, the Greenwich Meridian was pre-eminent because it had already been adopted by both the UK and USA and was therefore being used by 72% of the world's shipping.



Hispanic Day (Día de la Hispanidad) or National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is an annual national public holiday in Spain on October 12. It marks the anniversary of when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the Americas in 1492.
The king of Spain supervises the raising of the Spanish national flag in the center of Madrid on Hispanic Day. He and the prime minister lead a military parade after that. The parade includes representatives from most of Spain's military units and various military vehicles. Armed forces' planes perform aerobatics above the parade route and display yellow and red smoke to represent the Spanish flag. Radio, television and Internet news services broadcast live on these events.

Hispanic Day is a day off work and an opportunity to spend time quietly at home or in the company of family members and close friends. People in the Aragon region in the north-east of Spain also commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar, their patron saint, on October 12.


The slogan for World Teachers’ Day 2018 is “The right to education means the right to a qualified teacher,
Over 100 countries express their teacher appreciation by observing World Teachers' Day. The efforts of many parents and teachers’ organizations have contributed to this widespread recognition. Every
year, public awareness campaigns are launched to highlight the contributions of the teaching profession.
On this day, teachers, and organizations worldwide mobilise to ensure that the needs of future generations are taken into consideration in this increasingly complex, multicultural and technological world.

According to UNESCO, World Teachers' Day represents a significant token of the awareness, understanding and teacher appreciation displayed for the vital contribution that these professionals make to education and development.

2º ESO - UNIT 1


We use the present simple to talk about repeated actions or events, permanent states or things which are always true.

Simple Present (Aff., Neg., Interr.):
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 , 9 , 10

Simple Present Negative: 1, 2
Interrogative: 1, 2, 3
Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative: 1, 2, 3 , 4, 5
Put in the correct order: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Simple Present Tense:
Forming the 3rd person Singular:  2,
Affirmative Form:1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6,
Frequency Adverbs: 1, 2


1º ESO: UNIT 1

- To Be: 1, 2, 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ,

- Personal Pronouns: 1, 2,

- Countries & Nationalities List and Practice: 13, 4, 5,
and you can also click the Label "Countries"
(on the right hand side of this blog).

- Possesive Adjectives:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,

- Question Words: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

- Have Got: 1 , 2 , 3, 45, 6, 7, 8

- Be or Have got?: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Complete this paragraph. It's easy!

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

 photo signature_1_zpsdsitixbo.gif


Let's take a look at some useful Classroom vocabulary

Classroom Vocabulary:

- A List. Do you understand all the phrases?

Classroom Objects and Practice 1 and 2.


On 16 September 1620, the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States. On board were 102 men, women and children and a small crew, a large group of whom were Puritans (who become known as the Pilgrim Fathers). Their hope was to reach the New World, where they could have religious freedom, and continue using their native language, culture, and customs. After 65 grueling days they dropped anchor off Cape Cod on 21st November, before landing on the coast of Massachusetts on 21st December 1620 at a spot now called Plymouth Rock, where they established their own government.

Why did the passengers feel they needed to leave England?

On the death of Queen Elizabeth 1st, James 1st became king and adopted a moderate Protestant faith as the one true religion for England and Scotland, all other religions were discouraged or barred.

Why are the Pilgrim Fathers important?

The Pilgrim Fathers were the first permanent European settlers in America and therefore are often said to be the founders of the United States.


At one o'clock in the morning on 2 September 1666, Thomas Farriner was asleep over his bakehouse in Pudding Lane, in the City of London, when a servant rushed in to wake him. The bedroom was full of smoke and the staircase was already in flames. He and his wife and daughter , with the servant, escaped through a small window and watched the blaze spread to his neighbours timber houses. The Great Fire of London had begun. What started as a small small fire raged for four days as an enormous fire, destroying two thirds of the City: 13,200 houses, 430 streets and 89 churches. The fire could be seen from forty miles round the capital.

How do we know so much about the Fire of London?
The reason why we know so many details about the fire is that two men who were alive at that time kept diaries in which they described the dramatic events. The names of these two people were Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn.
Fire Prevention
To prevent such a disaster happening again King Charles ll commanded that all new houses in London should be of stone and brick not wood. Christopher Wren constructed St Paul's Cathedral (between 1675 and 1711) as well as many churches.
Not long after the fire a momument, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was erected between 1671 and 1677, as the City's memorial to the Great Fire in 1666.

ROYAL ASCOT : 19th - 23rd JUNE

The centrepiece of Ascot’s year, Royal Ascot is one of Europe's most famous race meetings, and dates back to 1711 when it was founded by Queen Anne. Every year Royal Ascot is attended by HM Elizabeth II and various members of the British Royal Family such as The Prince of Wales, arriving each day in a horse-drawn carriage with the Royal procession taking place at the start of each race day and the raising of the Queens royal Standard. It is a major event in the British social calendar, and press coverage of the attendees and what they are wearing often exceeds coverage of the actual racing. There are 3 enclosures attended by guests on Royal Ascot week.
 The Dress is strictly enforced, for Ladies only a day dress with a hat or fascinator is acceptable with rules applying to the length of the dress and ladies must not show bare midriffs or shoulders. For gentlemen a black or grey morning dress with top hat.
Over 300,000 people make the annual visit to Berkshire during Royal Ascot week, making this Europe’s best-attended race meeting. This leads to a split among racing fans, some of whom are glad to see racing in the spotlight, and getting more attention, while others do not like the meeting despite the quality of racing.
There are 16 Group races on offer, with at least one Group One event on each of the five days. The Ascot Gold Cup is on Ladies' Day on the Thursday. There is over £3,000,000 of prize money on offer.



On 14 June 1777, the Continental Congress approved the design of the Stars and Stripes as the official flag of the U.S. The first Flag Act was passed on this day stating that "the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."
Between 1777 and 1960, US Congress passed several acts that changed the shape, design and arrangement of the flag and allowed for additional stars and stripes to be added to reflect the admission of each new state.
Today the flag consists of thirteen horizontal stripes, seven red alternating with 6 white. The stripes represent the original 13 colonies, the stars represent the 50 states of the Union.

What do the colours red, white and blue represent?

The colours of the flag are symbolic as well: Red symbolizes Hardiness and Valour, White symbolizes Purity and Innocence and Blue represents Vigilance, Perseverance and Justice.

What do the fifty stars represent today?

Today the number of stars on the US flag has grown to 50 from the original 13. Since 1818, the stars have represented every state in the Union.

What do the thirteen stripes represent?

They represented the thirteen American colonies which rallied around the new flag in their fight against the British for self-governance.

The thirteen colonies included Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.



What is The Trooping Colour?
The official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II is marked each year by a military parade and march-past, known as Trooping the Colour (Carrying of the Flag). The official name is “the Queen’s Birthday Parade”.
Each June, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attend the Trooping the Colour ceremony on Horse Guards Parade, Whitehall in London. The Queen attends the ceremony to take the salute from thousands of guardsmen who parade the Colour (their regiment's flag).

It is only the Foot Guards of the Household Division that take part in the Queen’s Birthday Parade, with the exception of the King’s Troop Royal Horse Artillery, (based in St. John’s Wood). The Kings Troop, parade round with the Household Cavalry after the Foot Guards have trooped the Colour in slow and quick time.

The Sovereign's Official Birthday
The Queen's birthday parade is the biggest royal event of the year. In 1748, the celebration of the official birthday of the sovereign was amalgamated (merged) with the Trooping the Colour.
The Trooping the Colour is tradition going back to the days when the Colours (regimental flag of the regiment) was trooped in front of soldiers to make sure everyone could recognise their flag in battle.
The Colours today are trooped in front of the Queen troops of the Household Division (Foot Guards and Household Cavalry)
Parade Route
The parade route goes from Buckingham Palace along The Mall to Horseguards Parade, Whitehall and back again.



Let's practise the Future of Intention OR "Going to":
12,45 , 6 ,7 9 101112, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

1, 2, 3



On 2nd June 1953, the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II took place. Villages, towns and cities across the UK were decorated in red, white and blue bunting, and in London the roads were packed with people waiting to see the royal processions. The Coronation was the first ever to be televised, and the sales of TV. sets rocketed. Most homes before the coronation had no television. Many people bought a television for this special occasion. Compared to our present day ones, the televisions in the 1950s were black and white, as colour-sets were not available then, and the tiny 14-inch screen was the most popular size.

Where did the Coronation take place?

Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in Westminster Abbey in London, in a ceremony that lasted almost three hours, starting at 11:15 am. The crowning of the Sovereign is an ancient ceremony which has taken place at Westminster Abbey for over 900 years. Before the Abbey was built, Coronations were carried out wherever was convenient, for example at Bath, Oxford and Canterbury. Towards the end of the ceremony the Queen was handed the four symbols of authority:
1. the orb - representing the Sovereign's role as Defender of the Faith.
2.the sceptre with the cross- representing Christianity over the British Empire (not politically correct today)
3.the rod of mercy (sceptre with the dove) - symbolising the Holy Ghost
4.the Coronation ring (often referred to as 'The Wedding Ring of England')

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Geoffrey Fisher, then placed St Edward's Crown on her head to complete the ceremony. The St. Edward's Crown, made in 1661,weighs 4 pounds and 12 ounces and is made of solid gold. The Queen replaced her father, King George VI, as monarch following his death on 6 February 1952.

 A 41-gun salute at 12 noon fired by the King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery in Hyde Park, London.


You'll Never Walk Alone - The Story of the most famous song in Football

*  The Rogers & Hammerstein song was originally written for the 1945 musical Carousel.
*  Frank Sinatra was the first artist to take this song into the charts (#9 on the Billboard charts in 1945).
*  In the original musical Carousel, the song was sung to inspire a pregnant female character after the death of  her husband.
*  The Pink Floyd song Fearless ends by fading into a recording of Liverpool Football Club fans singing this song.
*  In 1985 a version by The Crowd returned the song to No.1. Gerry Marsden of Gerry and the Pacemakers was again the lead vocalist. Zack Starkey, Ringo Starr's son, was on drums, making him and Ringo the first father and son to both have UK No1s.

Origins as a Football Anthem:

In the 1960's the DJ at Liverpool's Anfield would play the top ten albums in order, with the number one album of the time being You'll Never Walk Alone playing last, right before game time. The fans took to singing it even after the album dropped from the top ten and the "anthem" has stuck ever since. Celtic, Hibernian, Feyenoord, and FC Twente have also adopted the song.

List of Artists Who've Recorded YNWA:
Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, Mario Lanza, Roy Hamilton, Louis Armstrong, Claramae Turner, Perry Como, Adicts, Nina Simone, Malcolm Vaughan, Shirley Bassey, Doris Day, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Ray Charles, Patti Labelle, The Righteous Brothers, Elvis Presley, Tom Jones, Johnny Maestro, Aretha Franklin, Lee Towers, Frankie Vaughan, Olivia Newton-John, Kiri te Kanawa, Smoking Popes, Bryn Terfel, The Three Tenors, Die Toten Hosen, Johnny Cash, Renee Fleming, Alicia Keys, Jordin Sparks


Can: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Must: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7


Vocabulary 1, 2, 3

Exercises: 12345 ,6 ,78910New York city places,



1, 2, 3, 4, 5



1, 2, 3, 4, 5,



Pronouncing the -ED ending. Read, listen and practise: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Affirmative Form:
Regular verbs: 1, 2, 3, 4
Irregular:  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Regular and Irregular: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 67
Negative Form: 1, 2